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History of Marmaris
Marmaris' old name is Physkos. It developed as a harbor city of Caria. Not much has reached our day from the ancient city. In his work the 19th century researcher Charles Texier mentioned the remains of a fort in the Fineks Mountains, overlooking the Phsykos Bay. It is known that Alexander the Great who conquered Marmaris in 334 BC had the fort repaired because of its strategic importance. Possibly the ruins that may be found in Asar hill on the ridges of Marmaris Beldibi today belong to thefort. Yet these ruins can only interest archeologists. The city dating back to 3400 BC, was under the domination of the Seleukos for a certain time during the Hellenistic period, then respectively, under Rome, the Byzantines and in the 13th century was captured by Menteşeoğulları.

Ottoman Sultan Kanuni Sultan Süleyman(Süleyman the Magnificent) conquered the region in 1522. From here he starteda campaign to Rhodes and took it over the same year. Marmaris was called Mimaras during the Ottoman period, later called Mermeris and finally became Marmaris.Marmaris fell under the Italians for a short time between 1919-1921, then, during the Republic it kept its identity as a fishing and sponge town.

Chronology from Marmaris
BC 3000>>>The first city walls of the Carian city Physkos is built. Physkos ruins may be observed in Asar hill on the north-eastern slopes of Marmaris Beldibi.
BC 7.YY>>>Loryma archaic city (today in the Sömbeki Bay, Bozukkale, and Taşlıca region) is established.
BC 546>>>Persian dominance in the region.
BC 334 >>>Alexander the Great conquers the region.
BC 323>>>Alexander the Great dies. The region falls under the dominance of the Kingdom of Bergama.
BC 133>>>Roman dominance in the region.
AD 395>>>Beginning of Byzantine periodAD 7th centuryArab raids. Many cities were destroyed and burned down as a result of these raids.
1290>>>Menteşe Beylik period. Marmaris becomes a large harbor town in the 1300's.
1451>>>Ottoman rule begins in the region.
1522>>>Ottoman Emperor Kanuni Sultan Süleyman (Süleyman the magnificent), starts his Rhodes campaign and comes to Marmaris with hisarmy of 100.00. The present fort of Marmaris is built by Sultan Süleyman on his return from the Rhodes campaign.
1867>>>Marmaris, becomes a town under the province of Muğla and a provincial district governor (kaymakam) is appointed.
1913 >>>A German battleship hides in Marmaris harbor in WW1.
1914 >>>The French fleet blasts Marmaris Fort with cannon fire and major destruction occurs.
1919>>>Italy and Greece agree among them selves as per the Sevres Treaty and Italy invades the region.
1922>>>July 22nd the Italian soldiers leave Marmaris and Marmaris is free.

Archaic age settlements
The archaic cities within the town borders of Marmaris may be listed as follows: Physkos (Beldibi, Asartepe), Amos (Hisarönü, Turunç), Bybassos (Hisarönü), Kastabos (Hisarönü), Syrna (Bayır köyü), Larymna (Bozburun), Thyssanos (Söğüt), Phoenix (Taşlıca), Loryma (Bozukkale), Kasara (Serçe pier), Kedrai (Sedir island), Euthena and Amnistos (Karacasöğüt). All the cities including Physkos are small Carian cities. Kedrai is a bit more developed. However, the ruins that remained from almost all of them are just fort and city walls.

Physkos
There are signs of settlement in the area dating back to 3400BC. Remains of this important port town of the Archaic Caria region can be seen from Asartepe, north of Marmaris City center. Some of the City walls in Acropolis still survive today.Loryma (Bozukkale) Established in Bozuk Bay, which is located on the southwest edge of the Bozburun Peninsula, We find the most impressive building in the remains of the well preserved castle in Burunbaşı, spread over a wide area. It has nine rectangular towers. Today the tourelle in the north can be seen. The best way to get to the ruins is by boat. The port of Bozukkale is an important destination point for daily boat tours. To get there by land one needs to walk from Taşlıca.

Kedrai
Sedir Island in the Gökova Bay is well known for the ancient city of Kedrai and the famous Cleopatra Beach.Kedrai was a Carian city until it was connected to Rhodes. Kedrai means "cedars" (cedar tree). Kedrai, being the most important settlement area of Karşıyaka of Rhodes was surrounded by city walls. While the tower and the city walls could be seen from the shore, today only the foundations of the Apollo Temple in Doric style remain, which is located in the middle of the city. At the eastern end of the city there are some remains of buildings; Agora and the theatre are in good condition.

Amos (Turunç-Kumlubük)
The theatre, temple and some statue pedestals of the ancient settlement is located on a hill in the northwest of Kumlubük Bay, close to Turunç. The city was surrounded by walls. The theatre is still in good condition. It is possible to distinguish the seats, side walls and three rooms of the stage house.Hydas Established in the Selimiye Bay (Kamışlı Bay) located to the North of the Bozburun Peninsula, you will come across, remains of the city walls and a square tomb. There is an observation tower and a few tombs in the tower on the shore located 3 kms away from Hydas.Erine (Hisarönü) Turning south towards Bozburun on the 20th km of the Marmaris-Datça road Hisarönü village can be reached via a 2km asphalt road. Ruins are accessed by a 3km forest road. Remains are from the Roman Age.

Castabus (Pazarlık)
The archaic ruins and holy place close to Hisarlık Village can be reached by an hours climb from the Hisarönü plain. The temple is on a platform. The Ionian style temple of the 4th century BC also has Doric elements. Temple foundation may be seen on the platform. Today, dazzling walls supporting the platform are left. Together with the temple, the ruins of the theatre located in the south, is the only recognizable building in the area.Thyssanos (Söğüt)There are remains of the Thyssanos settlement on a small hill behind the school, 1km southwest of the Village Söğüt. The remains consist of a few pieces of wall, traces of foundation and remains of wall behind the hill where no excavation work has been done.

Phoinix (Taşlıca)
The remains of Phoinix, a Carian City, are on and around Asar Hill 4km outside Taşlıca. First tombs come up in the path possibly belonging to the archaic period, between the village and the archaic settlement. Somewhere in the middle between Taşlıca and Asar Hill is the city of Agora. Climbing up the hill remains of a building and later the necropolis (cemetery) can be seen. The acropolis of the city is on Asar Hill. Rather than the remains, the views from the hill are more impressive.

Bybassos
The Orhaniye Village today is established on the slope of the hill where some remains of the city wall can be found. The remains can be seen in a wide area ofthe forest. There are also castle remains on a small island in the Orhaniye Bay.Euthenna (Altınsivrisi/Karacasöğüt)*** Detailed information about the archaic cities has been given under the heading of the areas they are in.


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